- Annex I and non-Annex I countries
Under the UNFCCC there is a differentiation between Annex I and Non-Annex I countries. The countries listed in Annex I are the industrialized countries. The countries not listed are the developing and emerging countries. Due to their historic responsibility and their economic capacity Annex I countries generally have more commitments than Non-Annex I countries.
The so-called refrigerant blends are mixtures of different refrigerants. The mixing can reduce flammability or lower the GWP of the substance depending on the mixing ratio. Examples for HFC-blends
are R404A, R407C and R410A.
- Climate-Ozone Protection Ordinance
The Climate-Ozone Protection Ordinance is a German federal ordinance regulating substances which cause the depletion of the ozone layer. It implements the EU ODS Regulation 1005/2009 at national level.
- Common Reporting Format
The Common Reporting Format (CRF) contains inventory tables in which all greenhouse gas emissions of every sector of a country can be inserted. The tables are not only sorted by sectors, but by gases, too. The CRF is a standard format developed by the UNFCCC Secretariat and is continuously updated. Every Annex-I country has to report their greenhouse gas emissions in the CRF tables to ensure comparability of the reporting. The greenhouse gas inventory of a country consists of the CRF tables and the National Inventory Report (NIR).
- Emission reporting
Emission reports provide data on the amount of greenhouse gases emitted at national level in tonnes and CO2-equivalents. Within international conventions like the UNFCCC, the reports have to be submitted by the Parties on a regular basis to allow for control and comparison of emission data. The UNFCCC does not only set out the gases to be reported but also the methods applied for emission estimates. The methodology for determining emission sources and quantifying emissions is developed internationally by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (also see IPCC Guidelines). On a national level the methods are being developed further and adjusted because the available information on each sector differs by countries.
- F-gas Regulation 517/2014
The F-gas Regulation is an EU Regulation that contains measures for various applications of fluorinated greenhouse gases in order to avoid emissions. These measures include for example leak checking of stationary refrigeration and air conditioning systems; recovery of used refrigerants and subsequent measures for recycling/reclamation or destruction; training and certification of personnel and companies; recording and labelling requirements as well as control of use in several applications. A key measure is the “HFC phase-Down” which means the stepwise reduction of the HFC supply placed on the EU market. The earlier version of the EU F-gas Regulation entered into force in 2006 (No. 842/2006) and has been reviewed in 2011-2014.
The collective term “F-gases” is used for fluorinated greenhouse gases. These include the substance groups HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and NF3. Because of their high global warming potentials, F-gases are covered by the UNFCCC and the EU F-gas Regulation. They were partly developed as substitutes for ozone depleting substances and are used as refrigerants, blowing agents, propellants, solvents, etc. today.
- Federal Immission Control Act
The Federal Immission Control Act is a law that shall protect against harmful environmental impacts of emissions and prevent their occurrence.
- German Chemicals Climate Protection Ordinance
The German Chemicals Climate Protection Ordinance came into force in 2008 and is the legal implementation of the EU F-gas regulation in Germany. It was last amended on 14.02.2017. It defines rules for training and certification of personnel and service companies. Furthermore, it contains additional measures such as limits for specific refrigerant loss rates of stationary refrigeration and air conditioning systems.
- German Federal Immission Protection Ordinance
The German Federal Immission Protection Ordinance is the ordinance that regulates the implementation of the Federal Immission Control Act.
- IPCC Guidelines
The 2006 IPCC Guidelines provide methodologies for assessing and estimating anthropogenic emissions. National inventories take into account GHG sources and removals by sinks.
They build on previous guidelines (Revised 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories) and the subsequent Good Practice Reports (IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF) to ensure that moving from the previous guidelines to these new guidelines is as straightforward as possible.
The 2006 IPCC Guidelines contain five volumes:
Volume 1: General guidance and reporting
Volume 2: Energy
Volume 3: Industrial processes and product use
Volume 4: Agriculture, forestry and other land use
Volume 5: Waste
- Kigali Amendment
In October 2016, the Parties of the Montreal Protocol agreed on the Kigali Amendment: It will enter into force from January 2019 and contains different reduction schedules for HFCs (Phase down) for developed, emerging and developing economies. For developed countries a reduction of HFC consumption by 85% until 2036 is set out. For most of the industrial countries, the first reduction step takes place in 2019. Different reduction schedules are established for emerging and developing economies with reduction targets of 80 or 85% within the period from 2024 to 2047. The HFC reduction targets agreed in Kigali constitute an important contribution to the long-term reduction targets for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions of the Paris Agreement. Financial support to developing countries to fulfil their obligations is provided through the Multilateral Fonds (MLF) of the Montreal Protocol.
- Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto-Protocol is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)and was agreed in 1997. The objective of the Protocol was to reduce the annual greenhouse gas emissions of industrialized countries by an average of 5.2 percent compared to 1990 levels during the first so called commitment period (2008-2012). Today 191 countries have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. For the second commitment period (2013-2020) the reduction targets are being updated. Furthermore, nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) was added to the basket of the six Kyoto Protocol gases. The Protocol has never been ratified by the USA and Canada withdrew its ratification in 2013. The Kyoto-Protocol will be replaced by the Paris Agreement in 2020.
- Montreal Protocol
The Montreal Protocol is a multilateral environmental agreement regulating production and consumption of ozone depleting substances. Its core target was the global phase out of CFC production and use. The Protocol was signed in September 1987 and ratified by all 191 Parties to the Montreal Protocol. Till 2004 the production volume of ozone depleting substances was reduced by 97 percent compared to 1987 which is why it is known as one of the most successful international Agreements. The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol includes additional targets for the reduction of HFCs which contribute to global warming. In this way, the objective of the Montreal Protocol has been extended to climate protection.
- National inventory report
The National inventory report (NIR) is part of the greenhouse gas inventory. The greenhouse gas emissions of a country are described and calculated in detail and on a regular basis in national inventory reports. Methods and data sources used for data collection are explained. These are based on the methodologies developed by the IPCC. The national inventory reports relate to the period of the covered in the CRF tables.
- ODS Regulation 1005/2009
This EU regulation contains provisions on ozone depleting substances (ODS). It sets the legal framework for the implementation of the EU’s commitments under the Montreal Protocol. The provisions refer to production, import and export, use, recovery, and destruction of ODS as well as placing on the market and recycling of these substances.
- Paris Agreement
The Paris Agreement entered into force in November 2016. Its objective is to limit the rise of global average temperature to 2 degrees Celsius - if possible to 1.5 degree Celsius - compared to the pre-industrial level. For this purpose, it is imperative that the global economy is decarbonised till the second half of the 21st century, i.e. getting carbon-neutral. For the first time, all Parties to the UNFCCC defined national climate protection goals (“national determined contribution” (NDC)) which are reviewed and adjusted every 5 years.
- Phase Down
The Phase down is a core element of the EU F-gas Regulation 517/2014. It refers to a stepwise reduction of the amounts of HFCs placed on the EU market (expressed in CO2-equivalents). The basis for this calculation (baseline) are the average HFC amounts placed on the EU market in 2009 to 2012. In 2015 the allowed supply was 100 % of the baseline value. A stepwise reduction to 21 % is scheduled until 2030.
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international, multilateral agreement of the United Nations. It was agreed in 1992 and entered into force in 1994. Its main objective is to prevent a dangerous anthropogenic influence of the global climate. The international agreement is thus aiming at stabilizing the concentration of global greenhouse gas emissions. The highest decision-making committee of the UNFCCC is the annual Conference of the parties (COP). 195 countries have ratified the UNFCCC by today. At the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) in December 2015 the Paris Agreement was passed, which represents the second amendment to the UNFCCC after the Kyoto-Protocol.